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1) Archery

“]The first archery competition for those with physical impairments was held at the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in 1948, and it was one of the original Paralympic sports at the Rome 1960 Paralympic Games.The sport has three different classifications and athletes in 54 countries are currently practicing archery. It is comprised of individual and team events in both standing and wheelchair competitions. Athletes shoot from a distance at a target marked with 10 scoring zones.At the London 2012 Games, 140 athletes competed in nine different medal events.

Address World Archery, Maison du Sport, International Avenue de Rhodanie 54, 1007 Lausanne, Switzerland
Phone +41 (0)21 614 30 50
Main Contact Tom Dielen
IPC Sports Council Representative Carole Hicks




IPC Sports Council Representative Carole Hicks



IPC Sports Council Representative Carole Hicks

Athletics has been a part of the Paralympic Games since 1960 and being that it offers the largest number of events, it attracts the largest number of athletes and spectators.
It is practiced by athletes in more than 100 countries, and those athletes compete according to their functional classification in each event. Some compete in wheelchairs and some with prostheses, while those who are visually impaired receive guidance from a sighted guide.
The events on the Paralympic programme include:
Track events: Sprint (100m, 200m, 400m); middle distance (800m, 1,500m); long distance (5,000m, 10,000m) and relay races (4x100m, 4x400m)
Road event: Marathon
Field events: High jump, long jump, triple jump, discus, shot put, javelin
Combined events: Pentathlon
At the London 2012 Games, 1,100 athletes will compete in 170 medal events.


To ensure competition is fair and equal, all Paralympic sports have a system in place which ensures that winning is determined by skill, fitness, power, endurance, tactical ability and mental focus, the same factors that account for success in sport for able bodied athletes.
This process is called classification and its purpose is to minimise the impact of impairments on the activity (sport discipline). Having the impairment thus is not sufficient. The impact on the sport must be proved, and in each Paralympic sport, the criteria of grouping athletes by the degree of activity limitation resulting from the impairment are named ‘Sport Classes’. Through classification, it is determined which athletes are eligible to compete in a sport and how athletes are grouped together for competition. This, to a certain extent, is similar to grouping athletes by age, gender or weight.
Classification is sport-specific because an impairment affects the ability to perform in different sports to a different extent. As a consequence, an athlete may meet the criteria in one sport, but may not meet the criteria in another sport.

Athletics Classification

In Athletics the sport class consists of a prefix “T” for Track/Jumps and “F” for Field and indicates for which events the sport class applies.

Sport Classes T/F11-13: Visual impairment

The three sport classes 11, 12 and 13 are allocated to athletes with varying degrees of visual impairment, with sport class 11 including athletes with the lowest vision and sport class 13 including athletes with the best vision meeting the minimum criteria. All athletes in the T11 sport class run with a guide runner and are blindfolded. Athletes in sport class T12 may also chose to run with a guide.

Sport Class T/F 20: Intellectual impairment

Athletes in this class are diagnosed with intellectual impairment and meet sport-specific minimum impairment criteria in 1,500m, long jump or shot put, respectively.

Sport Classes T32-38 and F31-38

The 30s sport classes are allocated to athletes with athetosis, ataxia and/or hypertonia. The impairments typically affect the ability to control legs, trunk, arms and hands. The lower the number is, the more significant the activity limitation.
Athletes in the sport classes 31-34 compete in a seated position, e.g. in wheelchair racing or using a throwing chair. In contrast, athletes in the sport classes 35-38 show a better function in their legs and better trunk control and therefore compete standing, e.g. in running events, long jump or throwing events.

Sport Class F40-41

Athletes with short stature compete in the sport class F40 and F41. Athletes in F40 have a shorter stature than F41.

Sport Classes T/F42-46

These sport classes are designated for athletes with limb deficiencies, such as amputations. In the sport classes 42-44 the legs are affected by impairment and in the sport classes 45-46 the arms are affected, for example by above or below elbow amputations.
For example, a shot put athlete with a single above-the-knee amputation competes in sport class F42.
All athletes in the 40s classes compete standing and do not use a wheelchair.

Sport Classes T51-54 and F51-58:

The 50s sport classes only include athletes competing in a wheelchair. Again, a lower number indicates a higher activity limitation.
Athletes competing in wheelchair racing events for T51-54 sport classes differ in regards to their arm and shoulder functions, which are pertinent for pushing a wheelchair. Athletes in classes T51-52 have activity limitations in both lower and upper limbs, for example, due to tetraplegia. Unlike athletes in the sport classes T51-53, athletes competing in T54 have partial trunk and leg function.
For field events, wheelchair athletes compete in more differentiated classes.
Athletes in sport classes F51-54 have limited shoulder, arm and hand functions to different degrees and no trunk or leg function. This profile is for example seen with tetraplegic athletes. Athletes in the class F54 have normal function in their arms and hands.
Throughout the sport classes F55-58 the trunk and leg function increases, which is an advantage in throwing events. For example, an athlete with an amputation on one leg could also compete in the F58 sport class.

Medical Diagnostics Form for Athletes with Visual Impairment

It is the responsibility of the Athlete to submit a copy of the Medical Diagnostic Form and all relevant documentation to IPC Athletics. The athlete should bring a copy of this document each time he/she presents for classification.
Medial Diagnostic Form (doc)
IPC Athletics Classification System
In 2003 IPC Athletics initiated a research programme to consider how the sports classification system could be enhanced by the application of a more scientific and objectively based approach. Such enhancements would be consistent with the IPC Classification Code.
You will find below a document prepared by the principle researcher, Dr. Sean Tweedy. Any questions in relation to the document below should be directed to IPC Athletics via email
IPC Classification Project for Physical Impairments Final report – Stage 1 updated 16 July 2010 (pdf)

Boccia was practiced for many years as a leisure activity until it was introduced at the New York 1984 Paralympic Games as a competitive sport.
It is practiced in more than 50 countries by those with cerebral palsy or related neurological conditions involving a wheelchair.
All events are mixed gender and feature individual, pair and team competitions.
The game consists of four rounds in individuals and pairs competitions and of six rounds in the team competition. It is played on a hard surface, and the goal is to throw the game balls so that they land as close as possible to a special target ball, which is called the “jack.”
At the London 2012 Games, 104 athletes competed in seven medal events.


Address 105 St Peters’ street, St Albans’Hertfordshire, AL1 3EJ United Kingdom

Phone +44 (0)7802 199553



Main Contact David Hadfield

IPC Sports Council Representative David Hadfield

Canoe will be included in the Paralympic Games for the first time in Rio de Janeiro in 2016.
The sport is exactly like canoeing for able-bodied athletes, allowing those with physical impairments at all levels to enjoy the sport.
The classification system is based on athletes’ functional ability when it comes to paddling and applying0 force to the foot board or seat to propel the boat.
There are currently eight different events, and as the sport continues to grow, more events will be considered.


Address Avenue de Rhodanie 54, CH 1007 Lausanne, Switzerland

Phone+41 21 612 02 90



Main Contact Simon Toulson

IPC Sports Council Representative TBD

Cycling was first developed by visually impaired cyclists who competed using tandem bicycles, and it was introduced as a Paralympic Sport in Seoul in 1988.
Today, in addition to visually impaired athletes, the sport includes those with cerebral palsy, amputations and other physical impairments. Athletes race on bicycles, tricycles, tandem or hand cycles based on their impairment.
The competition programme includes sprints, individual pursuits, the 1,000m time trial, road races and road time trials for both individuals and teams.
At the London 2012 Games, 225 athletes competed in 18 medal events on the track and 225 athletes competed in 32 medal events on the road.


Address International Cycling Union (UCI) Ch. de la Mêlée 12 1860 Aigle Switzerland

Phone +41 24 468 58 11



Main Contact Christophe Cheseaux

IPC Sports Council Representative Chris

Equestrian became a part of the Paralympic Games for the first time in 1996 in Atlanta.
It is open to athletes with any type of physical or visual impairment. Events are mixed and grouped according to their functional profiles.
Athletes can compete in dressage events, a championship test of set movements and a freestyle test to music. There is also a team test that involves three to four members.
Riders are judged on their display of horsemanship skills and are permitted to use devices such as dressage crops, connecting rein bars, rubber bands and other aids.
At the London 2012 Games, 78 athletes competed in 11 events.


Address HM King Hussein Building, Chemin de la Joliette 8, 1006 Lausanne, Switzerland

Phone +41 21 310 47 47



Main Contact Trond Asmyr

IPC Sports Council Representative Trond Asmyr

Football 5-a-side made its Paralympic debut at the Athens Games in 2004 and is open to athletes with visual impairments.
There are five players on each team and the game lasts 50 minutes. Rules are similar to the able-bodied game with a few modifications. The ball makes noise when it moves and everyone, aside from the goalkeeper, uses eye shades to ensure fairness. The goalkeeper may be sighted and act as a guide during the game. Also, the measurements on the field are smaller and there are no offside rulings.
At the London 2012 Games, 64 athletes competed in the sport.


Address Riegelaecker St. 8, 71229 Leonberg, Germany

Phone + 49 7152 908 4863



Main Contact Ulrich Pfisterer

Football 7-a-side has been a part of the Paralympic Games since 1984.
The sport, which is for those with cerebral palsy, is similar to football for able-bodied players with a few modifications. There are seven players on the field at a time rather than 11, the measurements of the playing field are smaller, there is no offside rule and throw-ins may be made with just one hand. Matches consist of two halves of 30 minutes each.
At the London 2012 Games, 64 athletes competed in the sport.


Address CPISRA, Gen. Gavinstraat 423, MT Groesbe, 6562 Netherlands

Phone 001 1902 8661124



Main Contact Tom Langen

IPC Sports Council Representative Tom Langen

Goalball was devised in 1946 in an effort to rehabilitate visually impaired veterans who returned from World War II. In 1976, it was then introduced to the world at the Paralympic Games in Toronto.
The sport, exclusively for athletes with visual impairments, consists of two halves of 12 minutes each and athletes wear blackout masks on a playing court.
The object of the game is to roll the ball into the opposite goal while opposing players try to block the ball with their bodies. Bells inside the balls help orient the players, indicating the direction of the on-coming ball. Therefore, while play is in progress, complete silence is required in the venue to allow the players to instantly react to the ball.


Address IBSA Jose Ortega y Gasset, 18 28006 Madrid Spain

Phone + 34 91 436 5349



Main Contact John Potts

PC Sports Council RepresentativeJannie Hammershoi

Judo, which first began as a martial art activity for practicing mobility, was included as a competitive sport at the Paralympic Games for the first time in Seoul in 1988. At Athens in 2004, women’s weight categories were included for the first time.
The sport is open to athletes with visual impairments in several weight categories. Contests last five minutes and the athlete who scores the higher amount of points wins.
At the London 2012 games, 132 athletes competed in 13 medal events.


Address 41 Szechenyi Road, 2700 Cegléd, Hungary

Phone+36 30 629 6725



Main Contact Norbert Biro

Powerlifting is the ultimate test of upper body strength and can sometimes see athletes lift more than three times their own body weight.
It is open to male and female athletes with the following eight (8) eligible physical impairments (impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, and athetosis) with a range of physical disabilities, including (Cerebral Palsy, Spinal Cord injuries, Lower Limb Amputation, poliomyelitis), who meet the current minimal eligibility criteria and can perform, safely and appropriately, according to the IPC Powerlifting rules. All eligible athletes compete in one sport class, but in different weight categories.
The bench press is the sport’s single discipline, with 10 different categories based on body weight. Competitors must lower the bar to the chest, hold it motionless on the chest and then press it upwards to arms length with locked elbows. Athletes are given three attempts and the winner is the athlete who lifts the highest number of kilograms.
The sport is governed by the IPC and co-ordinated by the IPC Powerlifting Technical Committee.

Competition description

Athletes must be at least 14 years of age and have the ability to fully extend the arms with no more than a 20 degree loss of full extension on either elbow when making an approved lift.
Men compete in the 49kg, 54kg, 59kg, 65kg, 72kg, 80kg, 88kg, 97kg, 107kg and +107kg divisions.
Women compete in the 41kg, 45kg, 50kg, 55kg, 61kg, 67kg, 73kg, 79kg, 86kg and +86kg divisions.
In powerlifting, male and female athletes assume a position on a specially designed bench and, after taking or receiving the bar at arms length, the lifter shall wait with locked elbows for the Chief Referee’s signal. After receiving the signal “start”, the lifter must lower the bar to the chest, hold it motionless (visible) on the chest and then press it upwards, with an even extension of the arms,-to-arms length with locked elbows. When held motionless in this position the audible signal “rack” shall be given. An immediate decision shall be given by the three nominated international referees through a system of white and red lights.
Each athlete has three attempts. If an athlete wishes to make an attempt in order to achieve a record, they can make a fourth attempt.
For further information, please visit the rules and regulations section of the site.


IPC Powerlfiting approved discs must conform to a number of standards outlined in the sport’s rules and regulations. Athletes compete lying on an official bench which is 2.1m long. The main part of the bench is 61cm wide. At the end of the bench and towards the head, the bench narrows down to 30cm. The height of the bench varies between 48 and 50cm from the ground.


In 1964 “Weightlifting” made its debut at the Tokyo Paralympic Games and featured just men with spinal cord injuries.
Over the following years the sport started to include other disability groups and incorporate rules identical to those of Powerlifting competitions for able bodied athletes.
In 1992 it was decided that the Paralympics should only feature powerlifting as opposed to weightlifting. The resulting Barcelona Games saw athletes from 25 countries compete for medals.
By the 1996 Atlanta Games this number had increased to 58 and by 2000, the year women first competed in Paralympic Powerlifting, the sport was practiced on all five continents.
Today the sport boasts hundreds of athletes from more than 100 countries.
At the London 2012 Games, 200 athletes will compete in 20 medal events

Rowing was introduced for the first time at the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games.
The sport is open to male and female athletes and is divided into four boat classes. In all four events, races are over 1,000m. “Adaptive” rowing implies that the equipment is “adapted” to the athlete rather than the sport being “adapted” to the athlete.
At the London 2012 Games, 96 athletes competed in four medal events.


Address Av. de Rhodanie 541007 Lausanne Switzerland

Phone +41 21 617 8373



Main Contact Matt Smith

IPC Sports Council Representative TBD

Sailing was introduced at the Atlanta 1996 Paralympic Games as a demonstrative sport and then became a medal sport at the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games. It is now practiced by athletes in more than 70 countries.
It is open to athletes with any type of physical impairment and the classification system is based on four factors: stability, hand function, mobility and vision. Athletes compete in three events, which are non-gender specified: single-person keelboats, three-person keelboats and two-person keelboats.
At the London 2012 Games, 80 athletes competed in three medal events.


Address ISAF UK Ltd Ariadne House Town Quay Southampton Hampshire, SO14 2AQ Great Britain

Phone +44 23 80 635 111



Main Contact Emma Little

IPC Sports Council Representative John Twomey

The sport of shooting is a challenge of accuracy and control, in which competitors use pistols or rifles to fire a series of shots at a stationary target. In this precision sport, athletes use focus and controlled breathing to reduce their heart rates and improve stability and high performance. This ability to steady hand and mind to deliver a sequence of shots requires well-developed powers of concentration and emotional control.
Open to athletes who have a physical impairment leading to reduced function in the lower and/or upper limb(s), IPC Shooting employs a functional classification system, where athletes compete in sport classes based on their functional ability, rather than impairment-type. Athletes compete in one of two sport classes (SH1 & SH2), depending on their impairment.
SH1 class includes athletes with lower limb impairments and either no upper limb impairments, or an upper limb impairment that does not prevent the athlete from supporting the weight of the rifle or pistol themselves (i.e. in the non-shooting arm for pistol shooters). Many, but not all, athletes compete in a sitting position either from a wheelchair or chair/stool.
SH2 class includes athletes who also have more severe upper limb impairments, which prevents the athlete from supporting the weight of the rifle themselves. SH2 athletes compete only in rifle events, and use a spring mounted stand to support the weight of the rifle. Some athletes also require a support assistant to load the rifle for them.
Athletes compete in events from distances of 10m, 25m and 50m in men’s, women’s and mixed competitions.
The sport is governed by the IPC and co-ordinated by the IPC Shooting Sport Technical Committee following the modified rules of the International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF). These rules take into account the differences that exist between shooting for the able-bodied and shooting for persons with an impairment.

Competition description

The goal of shooting is to place a series of shots inside the centre ring of the bull’s-eye. The target is comprised of 10 concentric scoring rings with a score grade of one to 10, the central ring giving 10 points. In all finals, and in some qualification rounds, to further challenge athletes and really refine their skills, the scoring rings are each further subdivided into a further 10 scoring zones to give decimal place scoring system, with 10.9 being the very centre of the target and the highest possible score per shot.
Shooting competitions are divided into two major events: rifle and pistol competitions at three distances: 10, 25 and 50m. The rules depend on the gun (air or .22 calibre), the distance, the target, the shooting position, the number of shots and the time limit. Competitors accumulate points for the value of their shots.
Scores for each shot in the qualification round are accumulated to give the athlete a total score. The top eight athletes in the qualification round qualify for the final, however qualification scores are not carried over into the final, meaning each finalist starts from zero. In an exciting test of nerves, skill and focus, athletes with the lowest scores are eliminated over the course of a final, until a duel between the two remaining athletes for gold and silver medals ensues.
To give you an idea of the level of the accuracy required, in air rifle events athletes fire at a bulls-eye which is only 0.05cm wide – which is as big as a full-stop.
Of the 12 Paralympic shooting events, six are open to both women and men, three are open to women only and three are open to men only.

Sports equipment

Athletes use .22 calibre rifles and air guns (pneumatic, CO2 gas or spring). Upon trigger activation, the CO2 liquid changes to gas and activates the projectile toward the target. The pneumatic rifle uses a multiple pump system to store air pressure in a reservoir and trigger compression activates the projectile toward the target.
For 10m events held with an air rifle or air pistol, bullets with a diameter of 4.5mm are use. For 25m pistol events, and 50m pistol and rifle events, 5.6mm bullets are used.
The standard target is a cardboard square with concentric white and black rings around a black centre ring (or bull’s-eye). For the Paralympic Games, five different targets are used depending on the type of gun. These targets are electronic for increased accuracy.


Shooting has been part of the Paralympic Games since Toronto in 1976. Since the 1980 Paralympic Games shooting has developed from a disability-orientated classification system towards a functional classification system. This has resulted in a reduction in the number of classes from five classes with separate events at the Seoul 1988 Paralympic Games to three classes with integrated events since the Atlanta 1996 Paralympics.
In late 2010 the IPC and the International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) signed a Memorandum of Understanding to continue working together in developing Shooting further in the years ahead.
It covers several areas including management, promotion of competitions and events, knowledge exchange and general development of the Paralympic Sport and participating athletes.
While the IPC’s shooting competitions will remain completely independent in the near future, it was agreed that ISSF would work with IPC Shooting to identify suitable ISSF Technical Officials to be involved in IPC recognized competitions. In such cases, the ISSF would remain as the sole and supreme authority controlling the certification of ISSF officials.
Today the IPC Shooting is practiced in nearly 60 countries.
At the London 2012 Games, 140 athletes took part in 12 medal events

Sitting volleyball was introduced to the world at the Arnhem 1980 Paralympic Games.
It requires a smaller court (10m x 6m) and a lower net, and the game is considerably faster than standing volleyball. It’s played in a best-of-five set format, and the first to reach 25 points (with at least a 2-point lead) wins the game.
Teams consist of mixed classes in male and female events, with six on the court at a time. At all times, an athletes’ pelvis must be touching the ground, and service blocks are allowed.
At the London 2012 Games, 198 athletes competed in the sport.


Address Ms. I. Bos, General Manager Andersonweg 186041 JE Roermond, Netherlands

Phone [+31] 475-531-8257


Main Contact Denis Le Breuilly

IPC Sports Council Representative Denis Le Breuilly Swimming was one of eight sports practiced at the first Paralympic Games in 1960 in Rome, Italy and is now one of the most popular.
Both male and female competitors, who are classified on their functional ability to perform each stroke, test their skills in freestyle, backstroke, butterfly, breaststroke and medley events.
Athletes can have a physical, visual or intellectual impairment. As a result the rules of the International Swimming Federation (FINA) are modified to include optional starting platforms and in-water starts for some athletes or the use of signals or “tappers” for those with visual impairments. No prostheses or assistive devices are permitted in the pool.

Competition description

A FINA standard eight-lane 50m pool is required for competition at the Paralympic Games. Events are conducted as heats for eight competitors per class and with the fastest eight swimmers per class competing in the finals. There are various forms for swimmers to start their race; in the water, a dive start sitting on the starting platform or the typical standing start.
During a swimming event, swimmers who are blind are required to have an assistant to help him/her as he or she approaches the swimming pool end wall, either to make a turn or for the finish of the race. This process is called tapping and performed by a “tapper”. These swimmers are also required to wear blackened goggles in all their events.

Sports equipment

The clothing for swimmers is a bathing suit. It is forbidden for athletes to use anything that may aid the swimmers speed, buoyancy or endurance. Swimming caps and protective eye-goggles are permitted. The goggles protect the swimmers’ eyes as well as improving their vision in the water.


Swimming has been part of the Paralympic programme since the first Games in Rome in 1960 and has seen the number of athletes and countries take part increase every four years since. The USA’s Trischa Zorn is the sport’s most decorated Paralympian having won 32 gold, 9 silver and 5 bronze medals between 1980 and 2004.
At the London 2012 Games 604 swimmers from 74 countries competed in 148 medal events.
World Championships are held every two years in addition to regional Championships. In August 2013, the Canadian city of Montreal staged the IPC Swimming World Championships attracting 479 athletes from 54 countries who took part in 172 medal events.

Table tennis was included in the first Paralympic Games in Rome in 1960 and is now practiced by athletes in more than 100 different countries.
Athletes from all physical impairment groups, aside from the visually impaired, are allowed to compete in standing or sitting classes. Intellectually impaired athletes can also compete.
Men and women can participate in individual, doubles or team events, and matches consist of five sets of 11 points each, and are played in a best-of-five format.
At the London 2012 Games, 276 athletes competed in 29 medal events.


Address Chemin de la Roche, 11 Renens / Lausanne, 1020 Switzerland

Phone 0041 21 3407090



Main Contact Alison Burchell

IPC Sports Council Representative Alison Burchell

Triathlon will make its Paralympic Games debut in Rio de Janeiro in 2016.
Athletes race in three disciplines: 750m of swimming, followed by 20km of cycling and 5km of running.
Competition categories are based on specific physical impairments. Athletes may use a hand cycle, tandem bicycle or bicycle in the cycling portion and wheelchairs are permitted on the running portion of the course.
The sport is practiced in 37 different countries, and 27 different nations will have held national championship events by the end of 2011.


Address International Triathlon Union (ITU) 221, 998 Harbourside Dr. North Vancouver BC Canada V7P 3T2

Phone + 1 604 904 9248



Main Contact Grant Darby (CAN), Para-Triathlon Committee

IPC Sports Council Representative Eric Angstadt

Wheelchair basketball was originally developed by World War II veterans in the USA in 1945. At the same time, Sir Ludwig Guttmann developed a similar sport, wheelchair netball, at the Spinal Rehabilitation Hospital in Stoke Mandeville.
Since then, the sport has grown worldwide and was introduced on the global stage at the Rome 1960 Paralympic Games, and today it is practiced in nearly 100 countries.
It is designed for athletes who have a physical impairment that prevents running, jumping and pivoting.
Men and women play on teams of five players each and the measurements of the court and the height of the baskets are the same as in able-bodied basketball.


Address 109-189 Watson St. – R2P2E1 Winnipeg (Canada)

Phone +20 4632 6475



Main Contact Maureen Orchard

IPC Sports Council Representative Maureen Orchard

Wheelchair dance sport is an extremely elegant, graceful and stylish sport which involves athletes with a physical impairment that affects the lower limbs.
Participants can compete “combi” style, dancing with an able bodied (standing) partner, or duo dance for two wheelchair users together. Group dance involves wheelchair users only or together with able-bodied partners whereas single dance sees a wheelchair user dance alone.
Standard dances include waltz, tango, Viennese waltz, slow foxtrot and quickstep.
Latin American dances include the samba, cha-cha-cha, rumba, paso doble and jive.
There are also Formation dances for four, six or eight couples dancing in formation.
Since 1998 the sport has been governed by the IPC and co-ordinated by the IPC Wheelchair Dance Sport Technical Committee which incorporates the rules of the International Dance Sport Federation (IDSF). The sport is not part of the summer Paralympic Games sports programme.
In recent years the sport has benefitted greatly from the screening of popular dance based TV shows such as Strictly Come Dancing and Dancing with the Stars.
Today the sport is widely practiced in 29 countries and the last World Championships in 2010 in Hannover, Germany was a sell-out event months before the competition took place.


Wheelchair user Els-Britt Larsson was one of the pioneers of wheelchair dancing when it originated in her native Sweden in 1968 for recreational and rehabilitation purposes.
From there the sport’s popularity grew and in 1975 the first competition was organised in Vasteras, Sweden involving 30 couples.
Two years later in 1977 Sweden staged the first international competition and several regional and international competitions soon followed.
In 1984 Munich, Germany staged the first Rock’n’Roll European Championship for wheelchair dancers and the following year the Netherlands hosted the first unofficial European Championships in Latin and Standard.
The first World Championships took place in Japan in 1998, the same year the sport came under the governance and management of the International Paralympic Committee.
At the 2006 World Championships in Papendal, the Netherlands, duo-dance was presented for the first time in two Standard and three Latin dances.
The IPC Wheelchair Dance World Championships are held every two years and were last staged in 2010 in Hannover, Germany in front of sell-out crowds.

Sports equipment

The surface of the dance floor must be a minimum of 200 square metres with no side of the floor less than 10m in length.
Participants have the option of using electric wheelchairs if they need to.

Wheelchair fencing was developed by Sir Ludwig Guttmann at the Stoke Mandeville Hospital and was introduced to the world at the Rome 1960 Paralympic Games.
Men and women with amputations, spinal-cord injuries and cerebral palsy are eligible to compete in foil epee (men and women) and saber (men) events. Their wheelchairs are fastened to the floor during competition.


Address IWAS Olympic Village Guttman Road Aylesbury Buckinghamshire HP21 9PP United Kingdom

Phone +44-1296-4361-79



Main ContactJakub Nowicki, IWAS Wheelchair Fencing Committee

IPC Sports Council Representative Jakub Nowicki

Wheelchair rugby was developed in Canada in the 1970’s by athletes with quadriplegia, and after being presented as a demonstration sport at the Atlanta 1996 Paralympic Games, it made its debut as a medal sport at the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games.
The sport is now practiced in more than 25 different countries and includes men and women on the same teams.
Two teams of at least four players each compete for four periods of eight minutes each.


AddressSuite 349 – 5158 48th Avenue, Delta, BC V4K 5B6, Canada

Phone +1 779 232 9470 (for calls originating from the Americas), +44 20 8133 0124 (for calls originating from the rest of the world)



Main ContactEron Main

IPC Sports Council Representative Eron Main

Wheelchair tennis originated in the USA in the 1970’s and appeared at the Paralympics for the first time in Barcelona in 1992. Today, the sport is practiced in more than 100 different countries.
The game follows able-bodied rules with one exception – the ball is allowed to bounce twice.
To compete, athletes must have a permanent or substantial loss of function in one or both legs. They can compete in singles or doubles in matches that are the best-of-three sets.
At the London 2012 Games, 112 athletes competed in six medal events.


AddressBank Lane, Roehampton, London SW15 5XZ

Phone +44 (0)20 8392 4632



Main Contact Mark Bullock

IPC Sports Council Representative Ellen DeLange

24) Dwarf sports

25) Badminton para

26) Golf Para

27) Para Taekwondo

28) Swimming Para

29) Blind Judo

30) Other Para sports